Safety of Ozone
Dr. Howard Robins on Embolisms ~source
Introducing Dr. Howard Robins, the foremost world expert on the clinical use of Direct Intravenous (DIV) Ozone Therapy. Having administered over 300,000 DIV procedures (over 28 years) and having trained doctors around the world in this procedure, Dr. Robins is recognized as the expert in this field. There is no one more qualified to speak on the safety of DIV Ozone Therapy than Dr. Robins.
I wish to clarify on oxygen and ozone gas embolism...
They are virtually impossible!
There has Never Been a Published Death from any form of DIV (Direct IV) Anywhere in the World,
when performed by a licensed trained medical professional.
My clinic has now performed over 280,000 (update as of 2019 is over 300,000) RMDIV's over the last 28+ years safely. New York State would not allow anything else.
Please also keep in mind that Dr.Bocci says that "ozone resolves instantly in blood".
The International Scientific Committee on Ozonotherapy (ISCO3) says in their position paper on ozone therapy:
“It is important to clarify that ozone as well as oxygen do not cause embolism,
due to the fact that the blood is thirsty for them and dissolves them very quickly."
The main objection against all forms of DIV is the fear of “the danger of "air embolism". Robins Method of Direct Intravenous Ozone Therapy℠ (a.k.a. RMDIV℠) uses only medical grade oxygen and medical ozone generators with sealed systems, along with ozone resistant PTFE (teflon) and glass tubes.
If you look up “Air Embolism” in the medical literature, you may be surprised. (Thank you again, Nick Fedan Phd.)
Most of the reports come from neurosurgery procedures where air often enters the venous system, and where 'clinical manifestations' of Vascular Air Embolism [VAE] appear in about 45% of the cases.
Anesthesiology references indicate those lethal doses of air in humans range from 200 to 500 cc of entrained vascular air, or 3 to 5 ml/kg.
That's a lot of air (well beyond RMDIV℠) at 4 ml/kg, which would mean 280 ml of air for a 154 lb person in a single dose. Not surprisingly, one report cites a fatal case of 100 ml of air per second entering circulation during a subclavian venipuncture using a 14gauge (RMDIV℠ uses a 27gauge butterfly) needle. (Flanagan, Gradisar, Gross, and Kelly)
Also, it is not just the volume of air involved, but the speed of injection that also makes a difference (Toung, Roosberg, Hutchins).
In fact, an anesthesiology textbook indicates that "The Lethal Dose" [LD] in humans can be exceeded if the air is entrained slowly, allowing for hemodynamic compensation.
A bolus of air tends to lead to an increase in central venous pressure [CVP], a decrease in pulmonary artery pressure [PAP], and shock that is thought to be related to an air lock in the right ventricle.
On the contrary, a slow infusion of air results in an increase in CVP/PAP, with compensatory increase in cardiac output" (Mongan).
Non-lethal doses of VAE are reported as 2ml/kg or less (Bricker).
In a 154 lb person, this would amount to 140 ml of AIR (not oxygen) entering the venous circulatory system. "The lungs appear to have a large capacity to compensate for air embolus within the pulmonary arterial circulation" (Emby and Ho).
Other reports indicate "clinical manifestations" of VAE start appearing with dosages of 100 ml or more, particularly in neurosurgery procedures where air often enters the venous system. (Mongan).
Anesthesiologists are trained to look out for these 'clinical manifestations', and to apply corrective measures. In fact, one of the measures taken is to have the patient breathe 100% oxygen.
The points gathered from these cursory reference examples are fairly straightforward:
A VAE lethal dose is a lot of air in the venous system; it is around 280 ml in a 154 lb person.
140 ml or less of air (not tri-oxygen-ozone) in the venous system is considered non-lethal in the literature. [NOTE: EVEN 140ml of AIR is NOT lethal. Ozone is NOT AIR. It is pure oxygen + ozone.]
Non-lethal VAE cases are fairly common in neurosurgery, are expected, and anesthesiologists are trained to deal with them.
Given that the oxygen-depleted hemoglobin will absorb some of the gas, it would seem that staying below a single dose of 140 ml of oxygen/ozone would avoid even the "clinical manifestations" which the literature mentions, and which anesthesiologists must attend to in about 45% of neurosurgery cases.
Almost all RMDIV℠ treatments never exceed 115cc, but range between 5 and 115cc.
The RMDIV℠ protocol falls well within safe parameters reported in the medical literature.
Moreover, it is never AIR that is injected in the RMDIV℠ procedure, but pure medical grade oxygen with a small percentage of ozone.
Therefore, there is no danger of “air embolism” feared by other so called "ozone authorities" and ozone organizations.
In the future it would be in the best interest of the medical ozone world if all discussions of various forms of intravenous ozone therapy were kept in the area of scientific knowledge and not unsupported feelings and opinions.